Binary is the name for a base-2 Numeric System. Thus only 0 and 1 are in the counting system. For example:
In reference to computers, Binary often is meant to refer to Binary Code. Binary Code is, in the simplest terms, the language of digital machines. Because a digital machine or computer can only understand on and off, binary code is composed of simple 1's and 0's. These 1's and 0's are called Bits. Strings of bits (8 bits = 1 Byte) compose a binary code.
In most programming languages, binary numbers are noted with the prefix 0b such as 0b11011 (27)
Binary Code is used to send commands, in the form of a bit, to a Processor or Component by essentially turning off part of all of the component and thus manipulating the current. Most often 1 represents on or high current, and 0 represents off or low current.
Binary Code is almost never written or programmed by hand but is rather composed by a program Compiler. Higher level programming languages written by people must be compiled into binary code that a digital machine can use.
You can find a few documents on Binary Here
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