A bread board contains an array of holes which have wires connecting columns. This creates a short between any two holes in a column. Each column is electrically isolated from one another creating an open circuit between columns.
In larger boards columns are split into two electrically isolated halves, spaced such that the popular DIP package will fit with no connection between the two rows of pins. Some boars also contain two rows of pins which can be used to provide a power and ground rail along the length of the board.
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