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A filter is the field of signal processing removes unwanted components from a signal. Filters can fall into many categories, with some instances overlapping, such as analog/digital, linear/non-linear, passive/active, etc.

Technical Details

By far the most common type of filters are linear continuous-time filters. These filters are meant to remove certain frequencies while allowing others to pass.

Common Terminology

  • Low Pass Filter – frequencies below a threshold are passed while high frequencies are attenuated
  • High Pass filter – frequencies below a threshold are passed while low frequencies are attenuated
  • Band Pass filter – only frequencies withing a certain band are passed
  • Band Stop filter – only frequencies withing a certain band are attenuated.
  • Notch filter – a very small band Band-stop filter that cuts out one specific frequency
  • Comb filter – has multiple, narrow pass bands, regularly spaced
  • All Pass filter – passes all frequencies but modifies the phase
  • Cutoff frequency - frequency beyond while signals will be passed
  • Roll-off - rate of attenuation above the cutoff frequency
  • Transition band - the band between the start- and stop-band
  • Ripple - the variation insertion loss in the passband of the filter

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